The Structure and Function of Cell Components

Cell Components
The Structure and Function of Cell Components - Cell structure has two parts, protoplast and cell membrane. Cell membrane is the outermost layer of cell that functions as the boundary between protoplast and the environment. Protoplast contains thick liquid called protoplasm. Inside protoplasm, there can be found various of organelles.

1) Cell Membrane

Cell membrane is the outermost layer of a cell that functions as the boundary between cells content and its environment. It has several functions, some of them are as follows :
  • Controlling the exchange of substances between cytoplasm and its environment
  • As a receptor of stimulation
  • As a cell protector to keep the content of cell stay within
  • Controlling substances that will enter/exit the cytoplasm
2) Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm is the protoplasm that fills in spaces between plasma membrane and nucleus. Cytoplasm is composed of cytosole, the dissolved parts of cytoplasm that fill in spaces of organelle. Cytosol is a solution system consisting of 90% water, dissolved organic matter, and colloid

3) Nucleus
Nucleus is the largest organelle. Its shape varies from round to oval. Nucleus is covered by nucleic membrane or karyote except in human red blood cell and phloem cell. Nucleus is a very vital organelle because its controls all cell activities and contains genetic information

4) Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum is a complex membrane system arranged irrefularly in the plasma of eukaryotic cell. Endoplasmic reticulum serves the function as passage in cytoplasm connecting to nucleus. RE membrane is covered by ribosome.

5) Ribosome
Ribosome is composed of protein and ribosomal RNA with equal comparison. It function as a site for protein sinthesis of amino acid.

6) Centriole
Centriole functions in controlling the movement of protusion of cell, the formation of cytoskeletion, and cell division orientation

7) Golgi Complex
Golgi complex is an organelle with flat sack shape concentrated on one of the nucleus side and oftem found in gland cells

8) Lysosome
Lysosome is an organelle with bubble shape containing various enzymes. The organelle is covered by one layer of membrane. Lysosome can be found in almost every eukaryotic cell.

9) Mitochondria
Mitochondria is a site for an aerobic respiration to occur. Mitochondria is covered by double membrane. The inner membrane is infold and called cristae.

10) Plastid
Plastid is an organelle that has double membrane. Some plastids have color pigment and some other do not. This organelle can only be found in plant cell.

11) Vacuole
Vacuole is a cavity or sack containing liquid that's surrounded by a layer of membrane. Animal cell has smaller number and size of vacuole that plant cell.

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