Peripheral Nervous System

Peripheral nervous system is the nervous system located outside the central nervous system. Based on the origin, the peripheral nervous system is distinguished into cranial nerve (brain nerve) and spinal nerve.

a. Cranial nerve functions to transmit impulse from and toward the brain. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. The first four pairs bind with cerebrum and the last eight pairs bind with the posterior of brain. Cranial nerve serves the head, face, and upper neck.

b. Spinal nerve attaches to both side of spinal which has the function to transmit impulse from and toward bone marrow. Spinal nerve comprises of cervical nerve (8 pairs), thoracic (12 pairs), lumbar (5 pairs), sacral (5 pairs), and coccigeal (1 pair).

The Peripheral Nervous System classified into somatic and autonomic nervous systems

a. Somatic Nervous System
Somatic nervous system serves the skin, skeleton, and tendon. The acts of somatic system are voluntary motion and reflex motion. Valuntary motion always comes from cerebral cortex, while reflex motion is the automatic response to stimulation which occurs very fast. The shortest distance passed through by nerve impulse while doing reflex motion is called rejiex amme.

b. Autonomic Nervous System
Autonomic nervous system is the nerve system which serves the orhan, smooth muscle, and some glands that act autonomically (involuntary motion). The system consists of sympathetic and ParaSympathetic nervous systems. In the both systems, the ganglion connects the central nervous system with body structure served by autonomic nervous system.

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